Oxycodone hydrochloride comes under the brand name Roxicodone. It is a semi-synthetic opioid analgesic with the chemical name 4, 5α-epoxy-14-hydroxy-3-methoxy-17methylmorphinan-6-one hydrochloride, derived from thebaine, an opium alkaloid.
Roxicodone is the oral administration tablet containing 5mg, 15mg, or 30mg strength of the active ingredient Oxycodone hydrochloride. The inactive ingredients of 5mg Roxicodone tablets are stearic acid and microcrystalline cellulose. The 15mg and 30mg Roxicodone tablets contain the inactive ingredients corn starch, lactose, microcrystalline cellulose, stearic acid, sodium starch glycolate, D&C Yellow No. 10 (in 15mg tablets), and FD&C Blue No. 2 (in 15 mg and 30 mg tablets).
How Should I Use Roxicodone?
Roxicodone tablets are helpful in the management of mild to severe pain. Roxicodone, like all other narcotic analgesics, reaches the brain to boost the GABA (Gamma Amino Butyric Acid) neurotransmitters, which manages the sensation of pain. It changes the way the body reacts to the pain, providing pain relief and soothing effects for the user.
Roxicodone Dosage –
Roxicodone is for the patients who require opioid pain reliever. The dosage of medication is set individually according to the following factors:
Severity of pain
Opioid tolerance of the patient
Daily doses and potency of opioids taken previously
Patient’s response to the medication
Medical status of the patient
Patient’s general condition
Gradually increase the doses if the severity of pain increases, tolerance occurs, or if the analgesia is not adequate to treat the pain.
For the patients who never took opioid medications, given the starting dose ranging from 5mg to 15mg every 4-6 hours, as needed. Titrate the dose adjusting to the needs of individual patients. Give around the clock medication to the patients suffering from chronic pain.
Schedule the lowest effective dosage every 4-6 hours for chronic pain patients.
When converting the dosage from Fixed-Ratio Opioid/Acetaminophen, Opioid/Aspirin, or Opioid/Nonsteroidal Combination Drugs, the doctor decides whether or not the non-opioid treatment will continue. If the doctor chooses to discontinue the non-opioid analgesic, titrate the Roxicodone dose according to the level of analgesia and the adverse effects by the dosage. The starting dose of the Roxicodone is set upon the most recent dose of opioids and further titrated according to the response of patients and the side effects to an acceptable level if the doctor continues the non-opioid dosage as the single separate entity.
Patients on Opioid Therapy:
Closely monitor the patients currently on opioid therapy. Adjust the total daily dosage according to the nature, potency, efficacy, and tolerance of the opioid compared to the Roxicodone, and the patient’s response to Roxicodone. The titration of daily doses is necessary, especially in patients who have diseases that are changing their state rapidly.
Continuous re-evaluation of the patients is essential. Give special attention to the maintenance of pain control and the side effects of the therapy. If the pain increases, first identify the source of pain and then increase the dosage as described.
Regularly reassess the need for the use of the opioid analgesic, mainly in the case of non-cancer patients (pain due to other terminal illnesses).
Termination of Therapy:
If the patient no longer requires the therapy of Roxicodone for pain relief, it is essential to gradually discontinue the medication to avoid any withdrawal symptoms caused by the prolonged use and dependence of Roxicodone.
In general, decrease the medication by 25% to 50% per day, while carefully monitoring the signs and symptoms of withdrawal. If the patient develops the symptoms of withdrawal, increase the dose to the previous level and then decrease the daily doses more slowly, either lower the amount of change in dose, or increase the interval between decreases, or do both.
Side Effects of Roxicodone –
The severe side effects associated with the use of Roxicodone include respiratory arrest, respiratory depression, hypotension, circulatory arrest, cardiac arrest, and shock.
The less severe and frequently reported side effects of Roxicodone include:
Whole-body: allergic reaction, chills and fever, back pain, abdominal pain, neck pain, flu, infection, sepsis, and photosensitivity reactions.
Cardiovascular: tachycardia, palpitations, migraine, hypotension, heart failure, and deep thrombophlebitis.
Hemic and Lymphatic: leukopenia and anemia.
Digestive: nausea, vomiting, glossitis, gingivitis, dysphagia, diarrhea, and anorexia.
Musculoskeletal: pathological fracture, myalgia, bone pain, arthritis, and arthralgia.
Metabolic: peripheral edema, edema, gout, iron deficiency anemia, and hyperglycemia.
Respiratory: sinusitis, bronchitis, dyspnea, increased cough, pharyngitis, and lung disorder.
Central Nervous System: confusion, nervousness, agitation, anxiety, dry mouth, hypertonia, hypoesthesia, tremor, personality disorder, and vasodilatation.
Urogenital: urinary tract infection.
Skin: rashes, sweating, urticaria, and herpes simplex.
Special Senses: amblyopia.
As the Roxicodone being a narcotic analgesic, it is crucial to set the dosage schedule according to each patient. Roxicodone is only for the treatment of those patients for whom the benefits of the medication outweigh the risks of severe side effects such as respiratory depression, postural hypotension, or changed mental state.
The use of Roxicodone has a higher potential for addiction and abuse. The doctor should individualize the lowest effective doses of Roxicodone to prevent adverse effects of the medication as well as dependence, addiction, abuse, and withdrawal symptoms.
Before taking Roxicodone, inform your doctor if you suffer from adrenocortical insufficiency (e.g., Addison’s disease), acute alcoholism, kyphoscoliosis associated with respiratory depression, convulsive disorders, delirium tremens, CNS depression, prostatic hypertrophy or urethral stricture, toxic psychosis, or impairment of hepatic, pulmonary or renal function.
Roxicodone may not clearly express the diagnosis or clinical course in the patients having acute abdominal conditions. It may also increase the convulsion in patients of convulsive disorders.
All the opiate analgesics cause physical dependence, thus, leading to addiction to the drug. Physical dependence also results in withdrawal symptoms when the patient abruptly quits taking medicine.
Pancreatic/Biliary Tract Disease:
Roxicodone causes the spasm of the sphincter of Oddi. Use it cautiously for the patients with biliary tract disease or acute pancreatitis — Roxicodone increases the serum amylase level.
Pregnancy and Nursing Mothers:
Roxicodone can cause withdrawal symptoms in the unborn baby or the nursing infant if taken by pregnant women or nursing mothers.
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